Hydroponic Aggregates

Aggregates are mediums used to grow plants in, these provide support for the plants and affect moisture retention  and aeration around the roots of the plants.  Jiffy-7 are the easiest for propagating seeds and Perlite is the best medium for propagating cuttings.

When using aggregates it can be advisable to elevate your pump from the bottom of the tank to avoid sucking in residue from the aggregate.

Gravel

GravelCoarse, washed, river gravel is a good growing medium.  Gravel does not absorb any moisture and will retain some moisture on the surface of the gravel.  Gravel sized between 3mm and 10mm is best.

Gravel can be mixed with river sand or Perlite to maintain a higher moisture level in the growth medium.

Ensure that the gravel is carefully washed before being introduced into your hydroponic system.

Jiffy-7

Jiffy-7

The Jiffy-7 Pellet is made from sphagnum peat from specially selected peat bogs. Lime and a special fertilizer with a low ammonium content are added to the peat in order to stimulate growth. The pellets have a pH of approximately 5.3 and are wrapped in a thin, degradable net.

Simply sit in water and the pellet expands upwards. A small indent is on the top of the pellet, place your seed here once the pellet has absorbed the water.

Perlite

PerlitePerlite is a natural occurring substrate formed from volcanic glass,  it is porous and inherently retains water within it’s structure.

Perlite is excellent for rooting cuttings and can be mixed with other aggregates to provide ideal medium for use in your homemade hydroponic system.

Rinse the Perlite in fresh water before introducing to your hydroponic system to remove residual dust.

Vermiculite

VermiculiteVermiculite is a natural occurring mineral that expands when heated in a process called exfoliation.

Exfoliated Vermiculite does not retain moisture and generally is mixed with Perlite to form a growing medium.

The Vermiculite in the mixture provides great drainage, while the Perlite will retain moisture and in combination provides a moist aerated environment for plants to grow in.

Rock Wool

Rock WoolRock wool is manufactured by heating rock to 1600ºc and then either spinning it into fine fibres or blowing air through it resulting in fine fibres.  Rock wool is good at retaining moisture and can be used without needing to be contained in a pot.

Ensure that Rock Wool does not end up getting sucked into your pump or it will quickly block it.

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Aeroponics Technique

Aeroponic PlantAs the name suggests Aeroponics is growing plants which are suspended in the air, there is no soil or aggregate to support the plant.  The roots are misted with hydroponic nutrients, this provides the plants roots with the maximum possible aeration.

Basic Design

A reservoir is partially filled with hydroponic nutrient.  Place a a small pump in the nutrient and attach a series of misting nozzles.  The plants are placed in net cups which are in turn placed in holes cut in the top of the reservoir.  The roots of the plants need to be partially through the bottom of the net cups, this ensures that the nutrient mist covers the roots.

Design Considerations

  • The nutrient needs to be kept in a dark reservoir to stop algae growing, you can paint the outside of the container to stop light getting in
  • An air pump is not required as good aeration is provided to the plants roots in the mist
  • If plants need additional support use string hanging down from an overhead support and tie the plants to it

Design Components

Reservoir

Aeroponic ReservoirThe the reservoir can be any size,  just select a reservoir that fits the location you are going use it.  The nutrient solution should partially fill the reservoir, ensure that the pump is completely submerged to avoid overheating.

If you do not wish to make your own homemade reservoir, you will find reservoirs specifically made for Aeroponics available in you local hydroponic stores.

Ensure your reservoir does not let light in and that it is not susceptible to corrosion.  Good reservoirs are made of plastic, glass or stainless steel, other materials are fine if you use a plastic liner.

Pump

Misting NoozlesYou will require a submersible pump, the pump sits on the bottom of the reservoir tank, attach a pipe to a series of misting nozzles that are situated above the level of the nutrient solution in the reservoir.  I simply use parts from an in-ground watering system available from my local garden centre.  I attach a piece of pipe to the outlet of the pump, this is around 15cm long.  At the top of this pipe I attach a ‘T’ pipe junction and then a section of pipe on either end of the ‘T’ junction long enough to reach most of the way across the tank.  Insert 360º misting nozzles into the horizontal sections of the pipe.

Net Cups

Net CupsNet Cups are used to support the plants.  Cut holes in the top of the reservoir big enough to hold the net cups with around two thirds of the cup below the lid of the reservoir.  Net Cups can be purchased in a variety of sizes.  The plants may also be supported using a Plant Support Disk. Plant Support Disk For you homemade hydroponic system you can also use black polythene cut into a shape similar to the Plant Support Disk and taped to the list of the reservoir.

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Flood and Drain Technique

Flood and Drain Hydroponic system As the name implies this technique involves flooding the growing table with nutrients and then letting them slowly drain back into the reservoir.
There are many commercially available systems, these are good to provide you with design ideas for your own Homemade Hydroponic flood and drain system.

Basic Design

The nutrient solution is pumped from the reservoir under the grow table and then slowly drains back into the reservoir through a drainage pipe of holes.  The pump is only run for enough time to fill the grow tray to the top of the overflow pipe, this needs to be done frequently enough to ensure that the plants roots stay moist.  Plants can be directly planted in aggregate in the grow tray or be in pots sitting in the grow tray.

Design Considerations

  • It may be necessary to change the frequency and length of time the pump is running as the seasons change to ensure that the plants are kept moist
  • The grow tray needs to be above or partially above the nutrient reservoir
  • The nutrient needs to be kept in a dark reservoir to stop algae growing, you can paint the outside of the container to stop light getting in
  • Ensure that the pump stays covered with nutrients when the grow tray is fill to stop the pump motor overheating
  • The addition of an air pump provides good aeration to the plants roots

Design Components

Reservoir

The size of the reservoir is dependent on the size of the grow tray you are going to use, the reservoir should be large enough to fill the grow tray to the overflow height and still leave the pump covered with nutrients.  It is recommended that you use a fish tank air pump to aerate the nutrient solution in the reservoir.

Ensure your reservoir does not let light in and that it is not susceptible to corrosion.  Good reservoirs are made of plastic, glass or stainless steel, other materials are fine if you use a plastic liner.

Grow Tray

The grow tray would ideally be made of plastic and can either sit partially inside the reservoir or on top of it.  Ideally the grow tray would be at least 10cm deep to provide plenty for aggregate or pots to be places and to be completely flooded with the nutrients.

Pump

You will require a submersible pump, the pump sits on the bottom of the reservoir tank, attach a pipe to deliver the nutrient to the grow tray.   The pump should be on a timer that will run for enough time to flood the grow tray to the top of the overflow,  the frequency that the pump needs to run will need to be determined by how quickly the aggregate drys out.  The aggregate should remain moist with little nutrient sitting in the bottom of grow tray.

Overflow Pipe

The overflow pipe is simply a section of plastic pipe that goes through the bottom of the grow tray.  The top of the overflow pipe should be at the maximum height that you want the nutrient level in the grow tray to be at when the tray is in its flooded state.

Drainage Holes

There are several ways to drain the grow tray back into the reservoir.  If the grow tray is sitting on top of the reservoir, simply drill some small holes in the bottom of the grow tray.  It is also possible to put small holes in the side of the overflow pipe.


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Introductory Botany

There are four main parts of a plant, each of these parts have specialised functions that allow the plant to function

RootsRoots from Hydroponic Plant

The main functions of the roots are:

  • Anchor the plant to the ground
  • Absorb water and dissolved nutrients
  • Store food
  • Absorb oxygen

Root hairs increase the area for water absorption and are replaced by the plant every few days

Stems

The main functions of the stems are:

  • Support the leaves, flowers and fruit
  • Transport water and nutrients (mineral salts) from the roots to the growing parts of the plant through the plants xylem
  • Transport manufactured food to from the leaves to the growing parts of the plant through the plants phloem

LeavesLeaf

The main functions of the leaves are:

The leaves are constantly filtering a stream of air through their tissues to extract carbon dioxide which is combined with water to make carbohydrates in a process called photosynthesis.  The carbohydrate provides food for the entire plant.

Plants can loose up to 98 percent of their water intake through transpiration, this is a necessary loss to ensure that nutrients and carbohydrates flow freely through the plant

FlowersFlower

The only function of a flower is reproduction.

Flowers are made up of several part

  • Petals (corolla) which are used to attach insects
  • Sepals (calyx) to protect the flower bud
  • Stamen (anther, filament) produces pollen which contains the male gamete
  • Pistil (stigma, style) which holds ovules which contain female egg cells

Important Plant Processes

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants manufacture food.  The plant uses energy from light to build up plant food from water and carbon dioxide.  This process takes place only where there is green colouring in the leaves, the green pigment is called chlorophyll.  For photosynthesis to take place there needs to be a good supply of carbon dioxide (CO2) present; plenty of water from soil, hydroponics, air; light of certain wavelengths (red, blue/violet)

If there is not enough nutrients in the leaves, photosynthesis will stop and often will result in yellowing of the leaves.

Respiration

Sugars produced by photosynthesis are converted into energy by respiration.  All living parts of a plant respire at all times.  When a plant makes more food by photosynthesis than it uses in respiration or other growth processes the food accumulates for future use, this is of great importance for the production of fruit.

Transpiration

Transpiration is the process by which water passes out through the stomata on leaves as water vapour.  Water is continuously moving from the roots up through the plant.  Increasing transpiration increases the amount of nutrients being taken in by the roots of the plant.

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Static Solution / Deep Water Culture

Static Solution and Deep Water Culture systems are very similar so I will discuss both of these in this post

Static Solution System

Static Solution is one of the easiest homemade hydroponic systems that you can build.

Basic Design

The basic components of a Static Solution Culture system are a  reservoir and optionally an air pump with an air stone to aerate the nutrient solution.  The lid of the reservoir has holes drilled into it and the plants are suspended through the holes with their roots only very slightly suspended into the nutrient solution.  The plants are generally placed in pots filled with aggregate  to hold them in place.

With this method you can simply have one plant growing in a mason jar or any other conatiner with a lid that you have around the house.  A vase or other stylish container can be used, it’s really easy so give it a try.

Design Considerations

There are a few things to keep in mind when you design your Static Solution hydroponic system

  • The nutrient needs to be kept in a dark reservoir to stop algae growing, you can paint the outside of the container to stop light getting in
  • Ensure that the roots are only just in the nutrient to stop the roots from rotting
  • You will need to refresh the nutrient solution

Deep Water Culture (DWC)

Deep Water Culture (DWC) is another easy homemade hydroponic system that you can quickly build

Basic Design

The basic components of a DWC system are a  reservoir, an air pump with an air stone to aerate the nutrient solution.  The lid of the reservoir has holes drilled into it and the plants are suspended through the holes with their roots suspended into the aerated nutrient solution.  The plants are generally placed in a net pot to hold them in place.

Design Considerations

There are a few things to keep in mind when you design your DWC hydroponic system

  • The nutrient needs to be kept in a dark reservoir to stop algae growing, you can paint the outside of the container to stop light getting in
  • The plants require air around the roots to stop the roots from rotting
  • You will need to refresh the nutrient solution

I have located the following YouTube video which demonstrates building a DWC system.  In the video a system is built for propagating plants, simply up size the reservoir for normal plants.

Please refer to the Vegetable Growing Guide for the required nutrient concentration to place into the reservoir.

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Nutrient Film Techinque (NFT)

NFT ChannelAs the name implies, the Nutrient Film Technique is a hydroponic system based on a moving film of nutrient solution.

This system is widely used in commercial hydroponic installations and can just as easily be used in your homemade hydroponic system.

A NFT hydroponic system can be as small as a single 1m channel to as big as you entire yard, give it a try and you will amazed at how well it works.

Basic Design

The basic components of a NFT system are a sloping trough or channel, a reservoir, a pump to circulate the nutrient solution and some plumbing.

Basic Operation

The nutrient solution enters the raised end of the sloping channel and flows in a thin film to the lower end of the channel where it flows into the reservoir.  The nutrient is recirculated to the top of the channel by means of a pump.

Image by chooyutshing via Flickr

Design Considerations

There are a few things to keep in mind when you design your NFT hydroponic system

  • The nutrient needs to flow not puddle around the roots of the plants to keep the roots from rooting
  • The nutrient needs to be kept in a dark reservoir to stop algae growing, you can paint the outside of the container to stop light getting in
  • The plants require air around the roots

Design Components

Channel

There is an almost endless number of items that you can use as a channel to grow your plants in, here are some of the ones I have used

  • Plastic roof guttering
  • Plastic down pipe with hole cut for the plants
  • A plastic film called Panda Film, this is black on the inside and white on the outside.  I lay the film on a board and fold the two edges up to form a triangular shape.

Reservoir

The size of the reservoir is dependent on the amount of channel that you are installing and the amount of plants you are planning to grow.  A small reservoir with a large number of plants will require dosing daily, a large tank with a large number of plants may only need dosing every two or three days.  Try and set up your channel so that as the nutrient drain from the channel they drop a distance causing bubbles in the nutrient solution, if this is not possible it may be necessary to use a fish tank air pump to aerate the nutrient solution.Reservoir for your Homemade Hydroponic System

Ensure your reservoir does not let light in and that it is not susceptible to corrosion.  Good reservoirs are made of plastic, glass or stainless steel, other materials are fine if you use a plastic liner.

Pump

Submersible Pump for your NFT System

There are a number of pumps that you can use, one of the easiest is a submersible pump.  The pump simply sits on the bottom of the tank with the pump intake on the side, a spigot is provided to attach some pipe to deliver the nutrient to the top of the channel.

Ensure you check the height that the pump is capable of pumping to, this needs to be more than the height of the high end of your channel.  This measure is generally known as the Head.

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Vegetable Growing Guide

Wonderful Vegetables from my Homemade Hydroponic SystemHere is a list of some of the vegetables that you can grow in your homemade hydroponic system.  I have put the recommended nutrient concentration (CF) beside each of the vegetables,  grow within these ranges for the best produce.
Details of specific hydroponic system requirements are also detailed below.

Vegetables with similar CF ranges can easily be grown in the same hydroponic system to give you an amazing variety of produce.

Beans CF 18-25

Climbing beans produce a high yield in a small ground area by using air space.  This makes them a good subject for a greenhouse hydroponic system.  Butter beans grow especially well.

Beetroot CF 18-22

Beetroot grown hydroponically has a superb flavour.  Large tender roots are easily grown in an aggregate filled system taking between two and three months to reach a edible size.

Broccoli CF 18-24

Broccoli will grow well over a long period of time, cut the main head early so that a number of small heads will form.

Brussels Sprouts CF 18-24

Brussels Sprouts should be grown outside as they require a cold period to ensure that the sprouts are small and compact, when they form.

Cabbages CF 18-24

Cabbages are easily grown all year round, however they tend to use up a large amount of space.  If you want to keep a supply of fresh cabbage available, keep sowing a few extra plants every two or three weeks.

Capsicum CF 20-27

Capsicums grow from spring to autumn, leave plenty of room and ensure they get lots of sun if you want the fruit to colour.

Carrots CF 17-22

You should only grow carrots if you have plenty of space available in your growing container as they need to stay in position for longer than most crops.  Sand is a good medium to use, thin them at an early stage then allow the rest to develop to a size your growing container can hold. You will find that even the largest carrots are juicy and delicious with no sign of woodiness.

Cauliflower CF 18-24

Cauliflowers grown hydroponically become extremely large so unless you especially want to grown them hydroponically, do not put too many in.  They will need up to 500cm of growing space.  You will need to provide some shade over the heart as it forms to keep it white.

Celery CF 18-24

Gravel filled aggregate systems as well as NFT systems can be used to grow celery. Generally the plants will need spraying for rust at some stage.

Cucumbers CF 16-20

The smaller varieties of cucumber are the most suitable for greenhouse systems, as you can train them upwards over a frame.  Use a hybrid variety, some are resistant to mildew and you will find that other will develop to an enormous size if you let them.

Leeks CF 16-20

Leeks have a lengthy growth cycle and are compact and easy to grow hydroponically.  Leeks are best grown in an aggregate filled system.

Lettuce CF 8-12

Regular sowing of lettuce are needed to keep your home supplied. You can remove leaves leaving the plants in the system if only small quantities are required.  Grown in a greenhouse fresh lettuce can be available at anytime.  You may need to keep the plants shaded in hot areas, since they do not like too much heat.

Marrows CF 10-20

Zucchinis, Courgettes and other types of marrow grow so quickly hydroponically that it is necessary to restrict their growth,  keep picking zucchinis before they grow too large otherwise their growth cycle will stop.  One of two zucchini plants are enough to keep most families supplied.

Onions CF 18-22

Onions require too much space for most hydroponic systems and will grow well if you are keen to have some in your garden.  Spring onions especially are good to have growing for use in salads.

Peas CF 14-18

Peas grow really easily, plant them behind low growing plants with a frame to grow up.

Potatoes CF 16-24

Potatoes grow quickly in aggregate filled system and require large growing containers.

Pumpkin CF 18-24

Pumpkins will spread rapidly and become very large, ensure you allow plenty of space and train over a frame if possible

Radish CF 16-22

Radishes will grow extremely quickly so just plant a few at a time.  You can grow them in water with no nutrients added for the first weeks.

Spinach CF 18-23

Spinach is easily grown all year round.  You can remove leaves leaving the plants in the hydroponic system.

Silverbeet CF 18-24

Silverbeet are easily grown all year round, however they tend to use up a large amount of space.  You can easily remove leaves from the plants while leaving them growing in the hydroponic system.

Sweetcorn CF 16-22

Sweetcorn takes up a large amount of space,  If you would like to try it in your system make sure that it is carefully placed so the other plants will not be deprived of light by the rapidly developing corn

Tomatoes CF 22-28

Tomatoes grow extremely well in hydroponic systems.  If placed in a greenhouse with plenty of light a tomato plant will produce fruit all year round.  For heavy cropping allow the lateral immediately below a fruit set to develop and remove any other laterals up to the developing fruit

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Hydroponic System Design Overview

There are seven basic hydroponic system designs, I will give you an overview of these here and then provide you with details in separate articles.

Static Solution or Container Growing

This is a very easy system to build and can generally be made from items you have around your home.

A tank partially filled with nutrients.  In this you floating platform made of polystyrene of a similar buoyant material.  Cut hole for plant pots into the platform and put the plants into the pot using sand or gravel instead of soil.  It is a good idea to aerate the solution with a small air pump.  The tank should be painted or have a light blocking material place over it to stop algae growing in the nutrient solution.

Nutrient Thin Film (NFT)

This is a slightly more advanced system and will require at minimum a CF meter to maintain the correct nutrient solution concentration.

A channel is placed on a angle, nutrient is pumped into the top of the channel and flows down the channel into a tank at the bottom to be recirculated again.  The plants are grown along the channel.  This system is commonly used for commercial growers and can easily convert down to small homemade hydroponic systems.

Aeroponics

Aeroponics is a much more advanced system.  The plants are suspended above a tank and the nutrients are sprayed in a fine mist over the roots.  The spay can be applied continuously or periodically.  This method of hydroponics has the best plant aeration and low water consumption.

Passive Sub-irrigation

This is also a very easy system to build.  Plants are potted in an inert porous media like a mixture of Perlite and Vermiculite and the pots are placed into a tray which contains a capillary mat saturated in nutrient solution.

Flood and Drain

This also is a very easy system to build and like Container Growing can be made from items found around your home.

The construction of this system consists of a tank of nutrient with a tray filled with a medium like clay granules suspended above it (can easily for the lid of the tank), holes are made into the tray to allow the nutrient solution to flow back into the tank.  The plants are planted into which the medium.  Nutrients are pumped (or hand poured) into the tray to fill it and then are left to drain back into the tank.  There is enough moisture and nutrient left in the tray so that the flooding only needs to be completed periodically.

Run to Waste or Fertigation

Run to Waste is basically applying water and nutrient to plants growing in the ground on a periodic basis, either automated or manually.  The quantity applied is very dependant on the moisture loss through the ground and the requirements of the plants.  Strictly speaking the plants should be growing in an inert media, only this method can also be used for plants growing in soil

Deep Water Cultivation

This is very similar to the Static Solution System only the plants have their roots suspended directly into the nutrient solution rather than being planted in pots of inert material.  The nutrient solution must be properly aerated to avoid root rot.

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Hydroponic Nutrient Basics

A lot of mystique appears to have been unnecessarily created around hydroponic nutrition.  Hydroponic plant nutrition is no different in terms of requirements than conventional plant nutrition.

Nutrient Formulations

It is possible to make your own hydroponic nutrients, this can be advantageous for specialised commercial growers, for home use store purchased pre-mix is ideal.

Pre-mix formulas come either as powder or liquid and generally will be supplied in two parts  that you will need to mix in equal quantities for use in your hydroponic system.  Do not be tempted to pre-mix to the two parts before they are required to be used, the two parts can react together and you can end up with a in-dis-solvable sediment in the bottom of your container.

As with most plant foods, hydroponic nutrients consist largely of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K).  A selection of other elements including Sulphur, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Boron will also be added to the nutrient to provide balanced nutrition for the plants.

There is a large range of hydroponic nutrients ranging from specialising in flower blooms, specific plants through to general formulations.  I recommend using a general formulation

Nutrient Absorption

The process by which mineral nutrients dissolved in water are absorbed into plants is called osmosis.  Osmosis is the tendency of fluids to pass through a semi permeable membrane and mix with one another.  In plants the small hairs on the roots allow nutrients dissolved in water to enter the root system and do not allow particles of dirt for example to enter.

The cells in the plant’s root hairs contain a dense solution of salts and organic acid.  Because this solution is stronger than the weak solution of nutrients dissolved in the water surrounding the roots, there is a strong osmotic pressure driving the weak solution in through the cell walls to mix with the dense solution in the plant root hairs.

Warning

Osmosis can also work in reverse and kill a plant.  If the concentration of nutrients in the solution surrounding the plants roots is stronger than the concentration of nutrients in the plant’s root hairs, nutrients will move from the plant into the solution in effect starving the plant.

The concentration of nutrients in a solution is measured as Conductivity Factor (CF).  The more nutrients in a solution, the more conductive the solution becomes.

The acidity / alkalinity of a solutions is measured as pH .  The pH of the solution affects the plants ability to absorb the nutrients.

I will cover the importance of CF and pH in a future post.

Monitoring the Nutrients

CF Meter

For Static Solution Culture or Run to Waste hydroponic systems you can mix the nutrient solution to the required CF by measuring the required quantities following the details on the hydroponic solution you have purchased, for other hydroponic systems it is better to measure the CF using a CF meter

There are a large range of CF meters available.  Ensure you purchase one that has a CF range from 2 to 36 as this will cater for most plants that you are likely to grow

The easiest way to check the pH of the solution is to purchase some litmus paper, this simple is dipped into the nutrient solution and will change colour to display the pH of the solution

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Advantages of Hydroponics

Hydroponic systems can dramatically reduce the amount of time required to produce good plants.  Any vegetable, flower, shrub or even trees can be grown without the need to cultivate, weed or mulch, while watering and fertilising can be taken care of by automatic systems.

No longer will the quality of your soil dictate the quality or quantity of your produce.  Hydroponic systems can be established anywhere, irrespective of the soil, climate or the amount of space you have.

Superior produce from my homemade hydroponic systemYou will discover that the vegetables and fruit produced by hydroponic systems have a superior flavour and texture.  The plants have all the required nutrients readily available to them and don’t need to waste energy developing large root systems.  Because the plants have all the nutrients that they require they will develop faster, be more healthy and have a better resistance to disease than plants grown in soil.

It is possible to further increase the growth speed of the plants by techniques such as heating the nutrient solution to the optimal temperature for the plants roots.

You will be able to grow a larger number of plants in a small area producing a far higher yield than normally possible.  When plans are removed from a hydroponic system, new seedlings can immediately replace them making it possible for you to have a continuous yield.

You will find that only a small number of seedlings are required to produce what you need, as losses from pests and disease are greatly reduced when you grow hydroponically, especially if your plants are housed in a greenhouse or other structure.  Without dirt in the system it is easy to keep everything much cleaner enabling you to eliminate problems caused by many soil borne diseases.

You will find that hydroponic systems are highly efficient, require a low capital outlay and produce high yields with less effort.  This allows you to easily produce cheap quality vegetables and fruit almost all year round. Hydroponic strawberries

There are seven main designs used for Hydroponics systems, these will be explained in the System Design section.

With a little imagination you will be able to have a hydroponic system in almost any location, from the smallest indoor system to large outdoor systems.

Hydroponics will provide you with a challenging and exciting hobby and best of all you get to eat the most fantastic fruit and vegetables grown at your own home

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